# C1.2 Godel's Incompleteness Theorem (2019-2020)

## Primary tabs

2019-2020
Lecturer(s):
Dr Robin Knight
General Prerequisites:

This course presupposes knowledge of first-order predicate logic up to and including soundness and completeness theorems for a formal system of first-order predicate logic (B1.1 Logic).

Course Term:
Hilary
Course Lecture Information:

16 lectures.

Course Weight:
1.00 unit(s)
Course Level:
M

### Assessment type:

Course Overview:

The starting point is Gödel's mathematical sharpening of Hilbert's insight that manipulating symbols and expressions of a formal language has the same formal character as arithmetical operations on natural numbers. This allows the construction for any consistent formal system containing basic arithmetic of a `diagonal' sentence in the language of that system which is true but not provable in the system. By further study we are able to establish the intrinsic meaning of such a sentence. These techniques lead to a mathematical theory of formal provability which generalizes the earlier results. We end with results that further sharpen understanding of formal provability.

Learning Outcomes:

Understanding of arithmetization of formal syntax and its use to establish incompleteness of formal systems; the meaning of undecidable diagonal sentences; a mathematical theory of formal provability; precise limits to formal provability and ways of knowing that an unprovable sentence is true.

Course Synopsis:

Gödel numbering of a formal language; the diagonal lemma. Expressibility in a formal language. The arithmetical undefinability of truth in arithmetic. Formal systems of arithmetic; arithmetical proof predicates. $\Sigma_0$-completeness and $\Sigma_1$-completeness. The arithmetical hierarchy. $\omega$-consistency and 1-consistency; the first Gödel incompleteness theorem. Separability; the Rosser incompleteness theorem. Adequacy conditions for a provability predicate. The second Gödel incompleteness theorem; Löb's theorem. Provable $\Sigma_1$-completeness. The $\omega$-rule. The system GL for provability logic. The fixed point theorem for GL. The Bernays arithmetized completeness theorem; undecidable $\Delta_{2}$-sentences of arithmetic.